Information about earthquakes in Texas Big Bend National Park Story of the Alamosaurus vertebral column excavation on park grounds by a team from the University of Texas at Dallas Texas Water Resources Education Comprehensive explanations about groundwater, aquifers, and water use in Texas, including a nice ezplanation of the differences between two major aquifers in Texas: A paleontologist looks for fossils and is interested in the history of the earth. A mineralogist studies minerals that make up rocks. Which type of rock could have new minerals because it experienced heat and pressure? Metamorphic rock is rock that has been changed because of heat and pressure. List five events that helped shape Texas as we see it today. Events that helped shape Texas include volcanic activity, faulting, plates separating to form the Gulf of Mexico, glaciers melting, wind and water dumping and eroding sediment, uplifting, seas forming, going away, and forming again. What is the general name for the oldest rocks in the geologic time scale?
19 TAC Chapter , Subchapter C
Divisions of Geologic Time approved by the U. Geological Survey Geologic Names Committee, The chart shows major chronostratigraphic and geochronologic units.
WELCOME TO NMSU GEOLOGY We offer both B.S. and M.S. degrees in geology. Our students get jobs in environmental geology, the energy industry, government service, and some go on to a Ph.D.
The Oldest Living Thing: The oldest living thing on earth is either an Irish Oak or a Bristlecone pine. If we assume a growth rate of one tree ring per year, then the oldest trees are between 4, and 4, years old. Also, with regard to fossil tree rings, the author has been unable to find any documented instances of fossil trees having more than about rings. This is significant since we are told that God literally made the Earth, and all that is in it, only about years before the Noachian Flood described in the Book of Genesis.
In a Bristlecone Pine tree was discovered that has just over 5, tree rings. Helium in the Atmosphere: Helium is a byproduct of the radioactive decay of uranium as it decays into various different elements into its final stable element: As it decays, the helium not only accumulates in the rocks themselves, but also escapes from them and accumulates in the earth’s atmosphere. They also know how much helium is currently in the atmosphere.
If we use the same assumptions that radiometric dating experts make: Thus, after several hundred revolutions they disintegrate. Although some people claim that the Kuiper belt has been discovered, to this author’s knowledge that is not the case. Nor has even one hypothetical object i.
High School Statutory Authority: Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Chemistry or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or In Aquatic Science, students study the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in aquatic environments, including impacts on aquatic systems.
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Acknowledgements Introduction his document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale. It is not about the theory behind radiometric dating methods, it is about their application, and it therefore assumes the reader has some familiarity with the technique already refer to “Other Sources” for more information. As an example of how they are used, radiometric dates from geologically simple, fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks in western North America are compared to the geological time scale.
To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods. A common form of criticism is to cite geologically complicated situations where the application of radiometric dating is very challenging. These are often characterised as the norm, rather than the exception. I thought it would be useful to present an example where the geology is simple, and unsurprisingly, the method does work well, to show the quality of data that would have to be invalidated before a major revision of the geologic time scale could be accepted by conventional scientists.
Geochronologists do not claim that radiometric dating is foolproof no scientific method is , but it does work reliably for most samples. It is these highly consistent and reliable samples, rather than the tricky ones, that have to be falsified for “young Earth” theories to have any scientific plausibility, not to mention the need to falsify huge amounts of evidence from other techniques.
This document is partly based on a prior posting composed in reply to Ted Holden. My thanks to both him and other critics for motivating me. Background Stratigraphic Principles and Relative Time Much of the Earth’s geology consists of successional layers of different rock types, piled one on top of another.
A Radiometric Dating Resource List
Cities like Omaha, home to the Henry Doorly Zoo deemed one of the best in the nation , are historical and cultural centers. Here are the best Nebraska places to visit. Omaha Omaha is a lively city that is constantly reimagining itself.
Voila! Finally, the Naked Gun 2 1/2 script is here for all you quotes spouting fans of the Leslie Nielsen movie. This script is a transcript that was painstakingly transcribed using the screenplay and/or viewings of Naked Gun 2 1/2. I know, I know, I still need to get the cast names in there and I’ll be eternally tweaking it, so if you have any corrections, feel free to drop me a line.
Then, two weeks after publishing his findings, he was fired. Now California State University at Northridge has paid Armitage a six-figure sum to settle his wrongful termination suit based on religious discrimination. The case of Armitage is the latest to show the mounting hostility Christians face in academics and other public arenas. The whole discussion of evolution ends if you show that the earth is young. You can just erase evolution off the whiteboard because of soft tissue in dinosaur bones.
He had published some 30 articles in scientific journals about his specialty. In May , Armitage went on a dinosaur dig at the famous fossil site of Hell Creek in Montana, where he unearthed the largest triceratops horn ever found there. Back at CSUN, he put the fossil under his microscope and made the startling discovery: If the dinosaur were 65 million years old, the soft tissue could not have possibly remained, he says. His findings seconded groundbreaking discoveries by noted molecular paleontologist Mary Schweitzer , who triggered an earthquake in the world of paleontology when she published about soft tissue in dinosaur bones in Schweitzer subsequently postulated that iron is responsible for preserving the soft tissue.
Two week later, he found himself without a job.
Historical Timeline 4 Million B.C.
Biology G — General Botany Prerequisites: Biology G This course is designed to satisfy the major requirements for an Associate or Baccalaureate degree in the Biological Sciences. Biology G complements Biology G and G as the third of three in a sequence of survey courses. Biology G and Mathematics G or G or G or G or G , or Mathematics Placement Assessment A survey of extant living organisms including physiological and anatomical adaptations of organisms in response to their environment.
Each kingdom is examined, with an emphasis on evolution and ecology of organisms found in kingdoms Plantae and Animalia. Included in this survey is an introduction to scientific methodology including student-centered experimental design, execution, and subsequent analysis of data.
The Teaching Geologic History Packet is now available. Click here. Contains over pages of ready-to-run materials covering: Relative and Absolute Time, Sequencing Geologic Events, Geologic History Timelines, Geologic Eras, Fossils, Tree Cookies, and Radiactive Dating.
The way it really is: Even the way dates are reported e. However, although we can measure many things about a rock, we cannot directly measure its age. For example, we can measure its mass, its volume, its colour, the minerals in it, their size and the way they are arranged. We can crush the rock and measure its chemical composition and the radioactive elements it contains. But we do not have an instrument that directly measures age.
Before we can calculate the age of a rock from its measured chemical composition, we must assume what radioactive elements were in the rock when it formed. It may be surprising to learn that evolutionary geologists themselves will not accept a radiometric date unless they think it is correct—i. It is one thing to calculate a date. It is another thing to understand what it means. Field relationships A geologist works out the relative age of a rock by carefully studying where the rock is found in the field.
The field relationships, as they are called, are of primary importance and all radiometric dates are evaluated against them.
Teaching Geologic History
Read this article about Genesis genealogies. Day 54 Read about biomes on page 2. Click on each circle at the bottom of the page to read about each biome. There are links within each one to read its description and to learn about its location, temperature and precipitation. Make two graphs that show the temperature and precipitation of all the biomes. Use one color for each biome and use that same color on both graphs.
By Chad Dou — CSUN scientist Mark Armitage found soft tissue in a dinosaur bone, a discovery that throws significant doubt on evolution. Then, two weeks after publishing his findings, he was fired.
The assumption that the geologic column is a base from which to calibrate the C dates is not wise. With a half-life of only years, carbon dating has nothing to do with dating the geological ages! Whether by sloppiness or gross ignorance, Dr. Hovind is confusing the carbon “clock” with other radiometric “clocks.
Being ancient, the C content has long since decayed away and that makes it useful in “zeroing” laboratory instruments. It’s just one of the tricks that have been used to make the work a little more precise. The entire geologic column is based on the assumption that evolution is true. Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale: Circular Reasoning or Reliable Tools?
Andrew MacRae deals with claims that the geologic column is just circular reasoning. Hovind would take the trouble to do a little reading from something other than creationist publications he would not make such an outrageous statement. I believe he has confused the use of index fossils with evolution. One creationist editor, who is more mellow than his unfortunate statement suggests, phrased the argument thus:
Recent Advances in Understanding the Geology of Diamonds
Our students get jobs in environmental geology, the energy industry, government service, and some go on to a Ph. We are located in the southern Rio Grande rift with world-class geology right outside campus, providing opportunities for class field trips and research projects. Graduate Program We offer a MS in Geology in the fields of petrology, geochemistry, stratigraphy, structural geology, neotectonics, and volcanology.
GEOLOGY: EARTH’S HISTORY Use the links below to explore available resources covering major concepts associated with the study of the history of the Earth. Resources in this section pertain to the formation and evolution of the Earth and how it has been discovered through the relative and absolute dating of rocks and fossils.
Introduction to Geology Chapter 2 – Basic Geologic Principles The science of geology is founded on basic principles that are useful for making observations about the world around us. This chapter presents a mix of information that is essential fundamental to all following chapters. This chapter is an introduction to rocks and minerals, and the rock cycle.
Basic chemistry is important to all sciences, especially geology! Everything around us is made of chemical compounds that have testable and identifying characteristics, allowing them to be classified, and their age determined. This also applies to rocks, minerals, and derivative materials such as sediments and soil.
The chemical composition of Earth’s crust has similarities with other stony planets, with silicate-rich rocks being dominant in most locations on the surface. In addition, basic geologic principles can be applied to resolving the order of events leading to the formation of rocks and landscape features. This section presents many basic concepts that are universal to all physical sciences.
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The Teaching Geologic History Packet is now available. Contains over pages of ready-to-run materials covering: Can be purchased as a Download or a CD. Several items from this Packet are also available below at NO CHARGE You are welcome to use these ideas in your classroom, within your science department, within your school district, or to distribute to any teacher who may find these lessons useful. I only ask that: You cannot sell these lessons or make a profit on them in any way.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers and layering (stratification).It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic graphy has two related subfields: lithostratigraphy (lithologic stratigraphy) and biostratigraphy (biologic stratigraphy).
History of speciation In addressing the question of the origin of species, there are two key issues: Since Charles Darwin’s time, efforts to understand the nature of species have primarily focused on the first aspect, and it is now widely agreed that the critical factor behind the origin of new species is reproductive isolation. Why do species exist? Why is not all nature in confusion instead of the species being, as we see them, well defined?
Darwin pointed out that by the theory of natural selection “innumerable transitional forms must have existed,” and wondered “why do we not find them embedded in countless numbers in the crust of the earth. If, on a resource gradient, a large number of separate species evolve, each exquisitely adapted to a very narrow band on that gradient, each species will, of necessity, consist of very few members.
Finding a mate under these circumstances may present difficulties when many of the individuals in the neighborhood belong to other species. The members of the neighboring species, whose population sizes have decreased, experience greater difficulty in finding mates, and therefore form pairs less frequently than the larger species. This has a snowball effect, with large species growing at the expense of the smaller, rarer species, eventually driving them to extinction.
Eventually, only a few species remain, each distinctly different from the other. African pygmy kingfisher , showing coloration shared by all adults of that species to a high degree of fidelity. Rare and unusual features are very seldom advantageous. In most instances, they indicate a non-silent mutation , which is almost certain to be deleterious.
It therefore behooves sexual creatures to avoid mates sporting rare or unusual features koinophilia.
Regents Earth Science Resources: Geologic History
A single watch or clock for the entire class will do. Return to top PART 1: After students have decided how to establish the relative age of each rock unit, they should list them under the block, from most recent at the top of the list to oldest at the bottom. The teacher should tell the students that there are two basic principles used by geologists to determine the sequence of ages of rocks.
Younger sedimentary rocks are deposited on top of older sedimentary rocks.
§ Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School. (a) The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts.
The 6 Most Important Experiments in the World From the smartest artificial brain to the first artificial life Wednesday, November 14, The Blue Brain Project Scientists rely on computer models to understand the toughest concepts in science: Now a computer model is being designed to take on the human brain. With assistance from IBM whose nickname, Big Blue, helped name the project , Markram hopes to have a virtual human brain, with all its billion neurons, functioning by The model will also be adjustable so that it can explore unusual physiology a higher-functioning left hemisphere, say, or a weakened hippocampus and environmental changes like the effects of taking a pharmaceutical.
The data can then be interpreted via computer images. With this computer, Markram has created a preliminary model of a neocortical column—a set of about 10, cells that work together—equivalent to one in the brain of a 2-week-old rat. If the Blue Brain team succeeds, scientists will for the first time have a meaningful physical model of the human brain. So could a fully functioning virtual brain have the ability to create thoughts of its own?